Open-channel FLOW

In nature, watercourses represent “open-channel flow”. For centuries, humans have been making structural interventions to watercourses: irrigation systems, flood protection and utilisation of rivers for navigation and power generation.

Famous examples are ancient water systems (aqueducts) or agricultural irrigation channels extending over very large distances: the “Levada” in Portugal.

Roman aqueduct in France

“Levada” in Portugal