In nature, watercourses represent “open-channel flow”. For centuries, humans have been making structural interventions to watercourses: irrigation systems, flood protection and utilisation of rivers for navigation and power generation.
Famous examples are ancient water systems (aqueducts) or agricultural irrigation channels extending over very large distances: the “Levada” in Portugal.
Roman aqueduct in France
“Levada” in Portugal
Consistent with most textbooks, the fundamentals of open-channel flow are taught using an experimental flume with rectangular cross-section. The content is structured in the following chapters: